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Loose Leaf Oolong Tea: The Process Of Fermentation

Oolong or Wu Long means "Black Dragon". Oolongs are half-fermented (or semi-oxidized) teas that are in the specialty tea family. Half-fermented because the processing of Oolong tea requires only a partial fermentation (oxidation) of the leaves. Oolongs occupy an intermediate position between non-fermented green teas and fully fermented black teas and are the most diverse and interesting loose leaf teas. Oolongs can have varying degrees of oxidation that ranges somewhere between 10-35% in classic Chinese Oolongs to 60-70% in classic Taiwanese (Formosa) Oolongs. Oolong specialty tea is often made from mature leaves, collected from older tea trees.

Processing Oolong is considered the art of tea, where the character of tea is created. Tea masters participate in Oolong tea processing competitions to demonstrate their professional skills at this fine art.

Let’s take a look at Oolong manufacturing process.

There are no standard recipes on how to manufacture oolong tea; it is up to the discretion of each tea garden or tea master to decide on processing and the level of oxidation.
 
Immediately after gathering, the tea leaves are spread in a thin layer on special bamboo mats under direct sunlight for withering that will let most of water evaporate. The withering process time varies depending on the ambient temperature.
 
The next step of processing is very peculiar, withered leaves are placed in a large bamboo basket and put in a shady area. Approximately every hour, the tea leaves are shacked and gently tumbled in order to bruise the edges of the leaves to start an oxidation, at the same time avoiding breaking or crushing them. This procedure has to be done several times, until following effect will be reached: bruised up edges of the leaves due to the fermentation become brown blush (like 'rusty'), while veins and parts of the leaves should remain green.

Once the desired level of fermentation is reached, the oxidation process should be stopped immediately. This is achieved through the heat drying phase of raw materials in scorching air called "panning". The pan roasting of the leaves requires extensive experience in Oolong tea processing.

Most Oolongs are dried in two stages: first is partially, primary drying and rolling of tea leaves, then a final finish drying. Some highly fermented Oolongs undergo an additional stage of wetting and softening.

The partially drying process is carried out manually. This stage is necessary to stop the fermentation. Partially drying can be done in 2-4 steps, when the raw material is taken out of the oven, quickly cooled, then rolled. Then again dried in the oven, rapidly cooled, then rolled again, and so on. Afterwards, the leaves go through a final drying phase, ending oxidation and often followed by baking (roasting). Several kinds of Oolong are not rolled just dried after panning. With such a "multistage" technology, taste and degree of fermentation of Oolongs differentiate. Although, manufacturing Oolong is very intensive and meticulous process, unique aroma and flavor profile of this specialty tea makes this tea worth the trouble.

Good quality Oolongs are only loose leaf teas, not tea bags!

The most widely known and actively exported Oolongs are Chinese (Fujian and Yunnan) and Taiwanese (Formosa). Among the most well-known are Formosa Oolongs. Grown and manufactured in Taiwan, named after the province in which grown, these teas are considered the best in quality and affordability among Oolong the loose leaf tea family. Taiwanese Oolongs are often called "Champagne of Teas". Typically Taiwanese Oolongs are specifically labeled that indicates the quality of tea:

1. Fanciest or Extra Fancy
2. Fancy
3. Extra Choice or Extra Fine
4. Fine
5. Fully Superior
6. Superior
7. Good
8. Standard

Chinese Oolongs are famous for the fact that are used in a Chinese traditional procedure named Gongfu Cha and withstand up to 7 steepings.

Brewing Oolong is a very delicate process because it strongly depends on the type of oolong, more precisely, the degree of its fermentation. A lightly fermented Oolong is closest to the brewing of green tea with 190-195 degrees water and the brewing time 1-3 minutes. More fermented Oolong (such as Formosa) is brewing a little longer 4-5 min in hotter water 203-212. After brewing a quality Oolong has pronounced specific characteristics that cannot be mixed with any other kinds of tea.

 The best quality Oolongs expresses a strong and rich floral aroma and a remarkable peachy flavor with a honey-sweet aftertaste. Oolongs that closer in oxidation to black teas, have a nutty, toasted flavor. Color of brew is very diverse: from light yellow with green notes (like green tea) to a dark red. Oolong specialty teas contribute 2% of tea consumption of all the teas all over the world.

Enjoy a great cup of Oolong, happy drinking!

Loose Leaf Black Tea Benefits

The beneficial qualities that tea brings to both mind and body have long been recognized by the vast majority of people around the world. However it’s always the green leaf variety that takes the plaudits with other varieties playing second fiddle at best, and often times ignored. We are constantly bombarded through the media and treated to information overload to the extraordinary attributes of the green tea variety. It is certainly then no surprise that it is to green tea that one’s thoughts first turn while looking for a healthy drink to refresh. Whilst it is certainly true that green tea does come packed with an incredible health-giving pedigree, the black tea variety, or ‘crimson’ as it is known in Chinese and languages influenced by Chinese, should most certainly not be ignored.

What's the Difference?

Black tea has as much to offer as the green leaf variety to those that choose to give it a try. A fact of which many people are not aware is that both black and green tea comes from the same plant, Camellia sinensis. The larger leaves from the Assamese plant are used for the black variety, with the smaller leaves from the Chinese plants being used for green and also white tea too. Whilst much has been said of the health giving qualities of green tea, those benefits can be said to be present in black tea also as they are essentially derived from the same source. This is despite its more intense processing and consequently lower levels of antioxidant. There also tends to be more caffeine in black tea and hence black tea can be considered more stimulating.

It is often of a better flavor too as green tea tends to lose its flavor after a year or so, whilst black leaf tea can retain the flavor for many years more. It is due to this attribute of black tea that it has long been used a commodity for trading, and black tea bricks were even used as a form of currency in the 19th century in countries such as Mongolia, Tibet and Siberia. TF-2 is a compound present in black tea. It is an antioxidant and as such is very helpful to the human body in the fight against cancer, diseases of the heart and other inflammatory ailments.

Black Tea Research

Studies carried out in Europe spanning a decade have shown that drinking in excess of 2 cups of black leaf tea a day can cut in half the incidence of heart problems in males. The best method by far with which to imbibe tea is in its loose form, and in the authors opinion the bagged variety should be kept firmly on the shelf. It’s not just a great flavor from which you will benefit with black tea but also the extraordinary health-giving benefits that it will bring to your body. And there are of course many brands from which to choose with varied tastes and flavors. All without exception compete admirably with their green leaf counterparts in health properties and arguably make a more enjoyable and flavorsome drink.

Green Tea With Kombucha Powder, Lapacho Herbal Tea Blend

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Green tea with Kombucha powder, Lapacho herbal tea blend Now Available from ESPemporium.com

USA-Based tea vendor ESPEmporium.com adds Green tea with Kombucha powder, Lapacho Herbal tea blend to Wellness Herbal Tea Blends Category

Chicago, IL – May 8, 2010 – Tea experts ESP Emporium have announced the immediate availability of two new flavors of tea to their online selection of more than 160 different varieties and flavors of loose tea beverages. The flavors include a Sencha Kombucha/Plum Green Tea and a Lapacho Orange/Vanilla Herb Tea Blend, both of which offer wellness properties, including rich anti-oxidant content, and are available in four convenient shipping sizes.

“The green tea blend and the orange-vanilla blend are both perfect drinks for health-conscious tea lovers” said Steve Popec, co-owner of ESP Emporium. “The Plum Green Tea is blended with Sencha Kombucha, which offers pro-biotic and anti-bacterial characteristics, and has been linked to immune system stimulation, improved liver function and digestion, as well as possible cancer-fighting agents. Not to mention the anti-oxidant content of the green tea itself”.

“Our Lapacho herbal tea blend also offers significant health benefits, based on the anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-fungal characteristics” said Popec. Lapacho is an herbal tea derived from the inner bark of pink lapacho – an herb used medicinally in South America and Central America.”

 Both of the new flavors are available immediately:

·        Green Tea with Kombucha – Four shipping weights available, ranging from: 50g (1.76oz) - Price: $5.50 to 500g (17.64oz) Price: $41.95

·       Lapacho herbal tea blend – Four shipping weights available, ranging from: 50g (1.76oz) Price: $4.95 to 500 Grams (17.64oz) Price: $39.95

About ESP Emporium: The ESP Tea Emporium is an American-based, online tea company located in the Midwestern US, which specializes in premium loose teas and tea-related accessories.

For more information about this announcement please visit ESP Emporium online (http://www.espemporium.com), or contact Steve Popec at 1-866-810-1818.

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Tea: The Essence Of The Fragrance

The fragrance of tea depends on the essential oils and tar substances that are contained in plants. Essential oils are complex mixture of substances that belong to the most diverse class of compounds which are soluble in organic solvents and possessing the ability to escape from water vapor. Overall the total content of essential oil is minimal; it is determined by only hundredths of a percent. For example, aromatic black tea contains about 0.02% of oil. Pure essential oil of fresh tea leaf is a green color with a strong fragrance of fresh greens. In the technological processing of tea leaf occurs the formation of a new aromatic substances that contribute to the specific flavor of the finished product. Thus, the composition of essential oil of green plants is different from the finished black tea. The substances that make up the oils can be divided into 4 main classes of compounds: acids, carbonyl compounds, alcohols and phenols. These volatile compounds found in tea are trace amounts - 0.01% of dry matter, but their role in the establishment of the tea flavor is tremendous. 
 
Some parts of the plant contain different amounts of volatile compounds, which, in turn, differ in their compositions. The maximum concentration of essential oil found in the tender stems and leaves. The top leaf with the growing bud and two next leaves are equivalent to the content of essential oil. Further down the stem, as general coarsening occurs, oil content decreases. Which explains why the top three leaves are the most vaulable for high quality tea. 
 
In the formation of the aroma of tea, the main role is played by aromatic aldehydes (Organic compound that has OH-group in its structure. They are used in organic synthesis as fragrances). In the composition of essential tea oils are vanilla, lavender, cinnamon aldehydes, etc. During the processing of tea leaves into black tea, the various fractions of volatile compounds undergo significant changes. The total content of these compounds increases most radically in the early stages of rolling. In the process of withering the relative content of components with higher boiling point reduces and low-boiling point, on the contrary, increases. 
 
Along with essential oils important role in creating a tea aroma played by various resinous substances - carriers of flavor. They are in a close chemical relation with essential oils and are a complex mixture of different classes of organic compounds. 
 
The content of tarry substances in tea leaves ranges on average from 3% to 6%. These substances are separated by several fractions, the most valuable of which is a neutral faction. It has a pleasant sweet floral aroma. In the process of technological treatment , the amount of this fraction in tea leaves increases by 40%. 
 
During the processing of tea leaves, the content of resinous substances decreases, indicating the result of oxidation. I.e. ratio: fresh leaves – 3.48%, withered leaves – 3.27%, after two hours of curling – 2.92%, semi-finished product – 2.35%. 
 
Through fragrance of tea, all the deficiencies that have arisen as a result of violations of technological regimens or improper storage of products, can easily be found. Disadvantages may include: acidity, mustiness, smell of the green, smoke and other uncharacteristic for tea scents. Most difficult to improve defect is acidity, which results in a violation of the fermentation process. Since in the processing of tea leaves, especially during the fermentation, occurs a reduction of Tannin. Therefore, the tea produced in violation of this process turns out with a bitter flavor and pale color of infusion. The cause of the smell of greenery is an infringement of withering, rolling, and fermentation. Such a tea has a mild flavor that the brew is a greenish color in the cup with a greenish ring on the surface and instead of the characteristic astringent taste; this product has a bitter taste. If there is excessive moisture in semi-finished product (more than 7.5%) tea is aging much faster. For extended storage. it gets the smell of dampness and can come in unsuitable conditions for consumption. 
 
In addition, it is worth noting that different varieties of tea, as well as different ways of brewing, have an imprint on the final quality of the drink

A Wonderful Tea Schedule For The Entire Day

Every profound, self-respecting tea connoisseur has a collection consistent of several teas, where each type is brewed depending on time of the day, occasion, company or just the mood. Typically such a collection of teas includes:

- Teas for breakfast

- Afternoon teas

- Evening teas

In addition, during each occassion, several varieties of teas can be served.

Tea for breakfast - This tea should invigorate and tone the body and mind. The taste of this drink should be rich and strong. In addition, tea for breakfast is often served with muffins, scones, sweet breads, therefore it should be perfectly balanced with flavors. The most popular teas for breakfast are:

English Breakfast Black Tea Blend with a marvellously dark infusion and malty spiciness, best when slightly sweetened with a dash of milk or cream.

Irish Breakfast Black Tea Blend with a deep dark infusion and character spice. A definite “must have” for each tea lover.

Afternoon tea - Such a beverage is usually drank after a good lunch without milk or sugar, so it will help digestion and vigilance. The selection of afternoon tea should be approached with particular care because this social beverage prompts friendly conversations. If we generalize the basic properties and characteristics of mid-day tea, then the tea will have the following form:

Not too strong, must have a rich flavor, with exquisite and delicate aroma, but the main thing it is understandable and enjoyable not only for the host, but also for every guest. The most popular afternoon teas:

Earl Grey  ( black or green tea blend)  lightly flavored with fine bergamot oil that forms a harmonious basis for the popular, fruity, hot drink.

Caramel Black Tea Blend comes up to the highest expectations with its tempting creamy caramel pieces and the sweet, full caramel flavor with an unforgettable vanilla note.

Cinnamon Roll Black Tea Blend with perfectly balanced taste of expressive cinnamon flavor. Quite simple and perfect.

Jasmine Green Tea with intense bouquet of jasmine and delicate taste.

Oolong, White tea, Green tea…pure and flavored, regular and decafeinated… The list of choices are endless, the world of tea is infinite!

Evening tea - This tea is usually chosen using special blends, which include different varieties of teas, they are mostly with little or no caffeine content, not very strong and have a pleasant, delicate taste and aroma.  Rooibos, Honeybush, Ayurvedic, Herbal and Fruit blends are the most popular evening teas. Evening teas offer soothing aroma and taste to relax the body and mind for a better night sleep.